Section references are to the Internal Revenue Code unless
Purpose of Form
Form 8275 is used by taxpayers and income tax return preparers to
disclose items or positions, except those taken contrary to a
regulation, that are not otherwise adequately disclosed on a tax
return to avoid certain penalties. The form is filed to avoid the
portions of the accuracy-related penalty due to disregard of rules or
a substantial understatement of income tax if the return position has
a reasonable basis. It can also be used for disclosures relating to
preparer penalties for understatements due to unrealistic positions or
disregard of rules.
The portion of the accuracy-related penalty attributable to
the following types of misconduct cannot be avoided by disclosure on
- Substantial understatement of tax on a tax shelter
- Substantial valuation misstatement under chapter
- Substantial overstatement of pension
- Substantial estate or gift tax valuation
Who Should File
Form 8275 is filed by individuals, corporations, pass-through
entities, and income tax return preparers. If you are disclosing a
position taken contrary to a regulation, use Form 8275-R,
Regulation Disclosure Statement, instead of Form 8275.
For items attributable to a pass- through entity, disclosure should
be made on the tax return of the entity. If the entity does not make
the disclosure, the partner (or shareholder, etc.) may make adequate
disclosure of these items.
Exception to filing Form 8275.
Guidance is published annually in a revenue procedure in the
Internal Revenue Bulletin that identifies circumstances when an item
reported on a return is considered adequate disclosure for purposes of
the substantial understatement aspect of the accuracy-related penalty
and for avoiding the preparer's penalty relating to understatements
due to unrealistic positions. See the example. You do not have to file
Form 8275 for items that meet the requirements listed in this revenue
Generally, you will have met the requirements for adequate
disclosure of a charitable contribution deduction, if you complete the
contributions section of Schedule A (Form 1040) and supply all the
required information. If you make a contribution of property other
than cash that is over $500, the form required by the Schedule A
instructions must be attached to your return.
How To File
File Form 8275 with your original tax return. Keep a copy for your
records. You may be able to file Form 8275 with an amended return. See
Regulations sections 1.6662-4(f) and 1.6664-2(c)(3) for more
To make adequate disclosure for items reported by a pass-through
entity, you must complete and file a separate Form 8275 for items
reported by each entity.
Carrybacks, carryovers, and recurring items.
If you disclose carryover items on a return in the year
they originated, you do not have to file another Form 8275 for those
items for the carryover tax years.
If you disclose carryback items on a return in the year
they originated, you do not have to file another Form 8275 for those
items for the carryback years.
However, if you disclose items of a recurring nature
(such as depreciation expense), you must file Form 8275 for each
tax year in which the item occurs.
Generally, the accuracy-related penalty is 20% of any portion of a
tax underpayment attributable to:
- Negligence or disregard of rules or regulations.
- Substantial understatement of income tax.
- Any substantial valuation misstatement under chapter
- Any substantial overstatement of pension liabilities.
However, the penalty is 40% of any portion of a tax underpayment
attributable to one or more gross valuation misstatements in 3 and 4
above if the applicable dollar limitation under section 6662(e)(2) is
Generally, you can avoid the disregard of rules and substantial
understatement portions of the accuracy-related penalty if the
position is adequately disclosed and the position has at least a
reasonable basis. Reasonable basis is a significantly higher standard
than the not frivolous standard applicable to preparers.
See Regulations section 1.6694-2(c)(2).
The penalty will not be imposed on any part of an underpayment if
there was reasonable cause for your position and you acted in good
faith in taking that position.
If you failed to keep proper books and records to substantiate
items properly, you cannot avoid the penalty by disclosure. Also, you
cannot avoid the penalty by disclosure if the position is frivolous.
An understatement is the excess of:
- The amount of tax required to be shown on the return for the
tax year over
- The amount of tax shown on the return for the tax year,
reduced by any rebates.
There is a substantial understatement of income tax if
the amount of the understatement for any tax year exceeds the greater
- 10% of the tax required to be shown on the return for the
tax year or
- $5,000 ($10,000 for a corporation other than an S
corporation or a personal holding company as defined in section
For purposes of the substantial understatement portion of the
accuracy-related penalty, the amount of the understatement will be
reduced by the part that is attributable to:
- An item (other than a tax shelter item), for which there was
substantial authority for the treatment claimed at the time the return
was filed or on the last day of the tax year to which the return
- An item (other than a tax shelter item) that is adequately
disclosed on this form and there is a reasonable basis for
the tax treatment of the item.
In no event will a corporation be treated as having a reasonable
basis for its tax treatment of an item attributable to a multi-party
financing transaction entered into after August 5, 1997, if the
treatment does not clearly reflect the income of the corporation.
- A tax shelter item (other than a corporate tax shelter item)
- there was substantial authority for the treatment at the time the return was filed or on the last day of the tax year to which the return relates, and
- you reasonably believed that the tax treatment of the item was more likely than not the proper tax treatment.
For corporate tax shelter transactions, the only exception to the
substantial understatement portion of the accuracy-related penalty is
the reasonable cause exception. For more details, see section
Tax shelter items.
A tax shelter, for purposes of the substantial understatement
portion of the accuracy-related penalty, is a partnership or other
entity, plan, or arrangement, whose principal purpose is to avoid or
evade Federal income tax. For transactions after August 5, 1997, a tax
shelter is a partnership or other entity, plan, or arrangement, with a
significant purpose to avoid or evade Federal income tax.
A tax shelter item is any item of income, gain, loss, deduction, or
credit that is directly or indirectly attributable to the principal or
significant purpose of the tax shelter to avoid or evade Federal
Income Tax Return Preparer Penalties
A preparer who files an income tax return or claim for refund is
subject to a $250 penalty for taking a position which understates any
part of the liability if:
- The position has no realistic possibility of being sustained
on its merits, and
- The preparer knew or reasonably should have known of the
- The position is frivolous or not adequately disclosed on the
return or on the appropriate disclosure statement.
The penalty will not apply if it can be shown that there was
reasonable cause for the understatement and that the preparer acted in
In cases where any part of the understatement of the liability is
due to a willful attempt by the return preparer to understate the
liability, or if the understatement is due to reckless or intentional
disregard of rules or regulations by the preparer, the preparer is
subject to a $1,000 penalty.
The preparer penalties generally may be avoided if a position is
sufficiently disclosed and is not frivolous.
For more information about the accuracy-related penalty and
preparer penalties, and the means of avoiding these penalties, see
Regulations sections 1.6662, 1.6664, and 1.6694.
Be sure to supply all the information for Parts I, II and, if
applicable, Part III. Your disclosure will be considered adequate if
you file Form 8275 and supply the information requested in detail.
Use Part IV on Page 2 if you need more space for Part I or II.
Indicate the corresponding part and line number from page 1. You may
use a continuation sheet(s) if you need additional space. Be sure to
put your name and identifying number on each sheet.
If you are disclosing a position contrary to a rule (such as a
statutory position or IRS revenue ruling), you must identify the rule
in column (a).
Identify the item by name.
If any item you disclose is from a pass-through entity, you must
identify the item as such. If you disclose items from more than one
pass-through entity, you must complete a separate Form 8275 for each
entity. Also, see How To File on page 1.
Enter a complete description of the item(s) you are disclosing.
If entertainment expenses were reported in column (b),
then list in column (c) theater tickets, catering
expenses, and banquet hall rentals.
If you claim the same tax treatment for a group of similar items in
the same tax year, enter a description identifying the group of items
you are disclosing rather than a separate description of each item
within the group.
Columns (d) through (f).
Enter the location of the item(s) by identifying the form number or
schedule and the line number in columns (d) and (e)
and the amount of the item(s) in column (f).
Your disclosure must include:
- A description of the relevant facts and the nature of the
controversy affecting the tax treatment of the item or
- A concise description of the legal issues presented by these
Disclosure will not be considered adequate unless 1 and
2 above are provided using Form 8275. For example, your
disclosure will not be considered adequate if you attach a copy of an
acquisition agreement to your tax return to disclose the issues
involved in determining the basis of certain acquired assets. Also, If
Form 8275 is not completed and attached to the return, the disclosure
will not be considered valid even if the information in 1
and 2 above is provided.
Contact your pass-through entity if you do not know where its
return was filed. However, for partners and S corporation
shareholders, information for line 4 can be found on the Schedule K-1
that you received from the partnership or S corporation.
Paperwork Reduction Act Notice.
We ask for the information on this form to carry out the Internal
Revenue laws of the United States. You are required to give us the
information if you wish to use this form to make adequate disclosure
to avoid the portion of the accuracy-related penalty due to a
substantial understatement of income tax or disregard of rules, or to
avoid certain preparer penalties. We need it to ensure that you are
complying with these laws and to allow us to figure and collect the
right amount of tax.
You are not required to provide the information requested on a form
that is subject to the Paperwork Reduction Act unless the form
displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a
form or its instructions must be retained as long as their contents
may become material in the administration of any Internal Revenue law.
Generally, tax returns and return information are confidential, as
required by section 6103.
The time needed to complete and file this form will vary depending
on individual circumstances. The estimated average time is:
||3 hr., 35 min.
|Learning about the law or the form
|Preparing and sending the form to the IRS
||1 hr., 6 min.
If you have comments concerning the accuracy of these time
estimates or suggestions for making this form simpler, we would be
happy to hear from you. See the instructions for the tax return with
which this form is filed.
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