U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return U.S. Corporation Short-Form Income Tax Return
Compensation of Officers
Enter deductible officers' compensation on line 12. Form 1120 filers must complete Schedule E if their total receipts (line 1a, plus lines 4
through 10) are $500,000 or more. Do not include compensation deductible elsewhere on the return, such as amounts included in cost of goods sold,
elective contributions to a section 401(k) cash or deferred arrangement, or amounts contributed under a salary reduction SEP agreement or a SIMPLE IRA
Include only the deductible part of each officer's compensation on Schedule E. See Disallowance of deduction for employee compensation in
excess of $1 million below. Complete Schedule E, line 1, columns (a) through (f), for all officers. The corporation determines who is an officer
under the laws of the state where it is incorporated.
If a consolidated return is filed, each member of an affiliated group must furnish this information.
Disallowance of deduction for employee compensation in excess of $1 million.
Publicly held corporations may not deduct compensation to a covered employee to the extent that the compensation exceeds $1 million.
Generally, a covered employee is:
- The chief executive officer of the corporation (or an individual acting in that capacity) as of the end of the tax year or
- An employee whose total compensation must be reported to shareholders under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 because the employee is
among the four highest compensated officers for that tax year (other than the chief executive officer).
For this purpose, compensation does not include the following:
- Income from certain employee trusts, annuity plans, or pensions and
- Any benefit paid to an employee that is excluded from the employee's income.
The deduction limit does not apply to:
- Commissions based on individual performance,
- Qualified performance-based compensation, and
- Income payable under a written, binding contract in effect on February 17, 1993.
The $1-million limit is reduced by amounts disallowed as excess parachute payments under section 280G.
For details, see section 162(m) and Regulations section 1.162-27.
Salaries and Wages
Enter the amount of salaries and wages paid for the tax year, reduced by:
- Any work opportunity credit from Form 5884,
- Any empowerment zone employment credit from Form 8844,
- Any Indian employment credit from Form 8845, and
- Any welfare-to-work credit from Form 8861.
See the instructions for these forms for more information. Do not include salaries and wages deductible elsewhere on the return, such as amounts
included in cost of goods sold, elective contributions to a section 401(k) cash or deferred arrangement, or amounts contributed under a salary
reduction SEP agreement or a SIMPLE IRA plan.
If the corporation provided taxable fringe benefits to its employees, such as personal use of a car, do not deduct as wages the amount allocated
for depreciation and other expenses claimed on lines 20 and 26, Form 1120, or lines 20 and 22, Form 1120-A.
Repairs and Maintenance
Enter the cost of incidental repairs and maintenance not claimed elsewhere on the return, such as labor and supplies, that do not add to the value
of the property or appreciably prolong its life. New buildings, machinery, or permanent improvements that increase the value of the property are not
deductible. They must be depreciated or amortized.
Enter the total debts that became worthless in whole or in part during the tax year. A small bank or thrift institution using the reserve method of
section 585 should attach a schedule showing how it figured the current year's provision. A cash basis taxpayer may not claim a bad debt deduction
unless the amount was previously included in income.
If the corporation rented or leased a vehicle, enter the total annual rent or lease expense paid or incurred during the year. Also complete Part V
of Form 4562, Depreciation and Amortization. If the corporation leased a vehicle for a term of 30 days or more, the deduction for vehicle
lease expense may have to be reduced by an amount called the inclusion amount. The corporation may have an inclusion amount if:
|The lease term began: And the vehicle's FMV on the first day of the lease exceeded:
|After 12/31/96 but before 1/1/99
|After 12/31/94 but before 1/1/97
|After 12/31/93 but before 1/1/95
|If the lease term began before January 1, 1994, or, the leased vehicle was an electric vehicle, see Pub. 463, Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses, to find out if the corporation has an inclusion amount.
See Pub. 463 for instructions on figuring the inclusion amount.
Taxes and Licenses
Enter taxes paid or accrued during the tax year, but do not include the following:
- Federal income taxes.
- Foreign or U.S. possession income taxes if a tax credit is claimed (however, see the Instructions for Form 5735 for special rules for
possession income taxes).
- Taxes not imposed on the corporation.
- Taxes, including state or local sales taxes, that are paid or incurred in connection with an acquisition or disposition of property (these
taxes must be treated as a part of the cost of the acquired property or, in the case of a disposition, as a reduction in the amount realized on the
- Taxes assessed against local benefits that increase the value of the property assessed (such as for paving, etc.).
- Taxes deducted elsewhere on the return, such as those reflected in cost of goods sold.
See section 164(d) for apportionment of taxes on real property between seller and purchaser.
The deduction for interest is limited when the corporation is a policyholder or beneficiary with respect to a life insurance, endowment, or annuity
contract issued after June 8, 1997. For details, see section 264(f). Attach a statement showing the computation of the deduction.
The corporation must make an interest allocation if the proceeds of a loan were used for more than one purpose (e.g., to purchase a portfolio
investment and to acquire an interest in a passive activity). See Temporary Regulations section 1.163-8T for the interest allocation rules.
Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks can deduct the amounts paid or credited to the accounts of depositors
as dividends, interest, or earnings. See section 591.
Do not deduct the following interest:
- Interest on indebtedness incurred or continued to purchase or carry obligations if the interest is wholly exempt from income tax. For
exceptions, see section 265(b).
- For cash basis taxpayers, prepaid interest allocable to years following the current tax year (e.g., a cash basis calendar year taxpayer who
in 2001 prepaid interest allocable to any period after 2001 can deduct only the amount allocable to 2001).
- Interest and carrying charges on straddles. Generally, these amounts must be capitalized. See section 263(g).
- Interest on debt allocable to the production of designated property by a corporation for its own use or for sale. The corporation must
capitalize this interest. Also capitalize any interest on debt allocable to an asset used to produce the property. See section 263A(f) and Regulations
section 1.263A-8 through 1.263A-15 for definitions and more information.
Special rules apply to:
- Interest on which no tax is imposed (see section 163(j)).
- Foregone interest on certain below-market-rate loans (see section 7872).
- Original issue discount on certain high-yield discount obligations. (See section 163(e) to figure the disqualified portion.)
Enter contributions or gifts actually paid within the tax year to or for the use of charitable and governmental organizations described in section
170(c) and any unused contributions carried over from prior years.
Corporations reporting taxable income on the accrual method may elect to treat as paid during the tax year any contributions paid by the 15th day
of the 3rd month after the end of the tax year if the contributions were authorized by the board of directors during the tax year. Attach a
declaration to the return, signed by an officer, stating that the resolution authorizing the contributions was adopted by the board of directors
during the tax year. Also attach a copy of the resolution.
Limitation on deduction.
The total amount claimed may not be more than 10% of taxable income (line 30, Form 1120, or line 26, Form 1120-A) computed without regard to the
- Any deduction for contributions,
- The special deductions on line 29b, Form 1120 (line 25b, Form 1120-A),
- The deduction allowed under section 249,
- Any net operating loss (NOL) carryback to the tax year under section 172, and
- Any capital loss carryback to the tax year under section 1212(a)(1).
Charitable contributions over the 10% limitation may not be deducted for the tax year but may be carried over to the next 5 tax years.
Special rules apply if the corporation has an NOL carryover to the tax year. In figuring the charitable contributions deduction for the tax year,
the 10% limit is applied using the taxable income after taking into account any deduction for the NOL.
To figure the amount of any remaining NOL carryover to later years, taxable income must be modified (see section 172(b)). To the extent that
contributions are used to reduce taxable income for this purpose and increase an NOL carryover, a contributions carryover is not allowed. See section
Generally, no deduction is allowed for any contribution of $250 or more unless the corporation gets a written acknowledgment from the donee
organization that shows the amount of cash contributed, describes any property contributed, and, either gives a description and a good faith estimate
of the value of any goods or services provided in return for the contribution or states that no goods or services were provided in return for the
contribution. The acknowledgment must be obtained by the due date (including extensions) of the corporation's return, or, if earlier, the date the
return is filed. Do not attach the acknowledgment to the tax return, but keep it with the corporation's records. These rules apply in addition to the
filing requirements for Form 8283, Noncash Charitable Contributions, described below.
For more information on substantiation and recordkeeping requirements, see the regulations under section 170 and Pub. 526, Charitable
Contributions to organizations conducting lobbying activities.
Contributions made to an organization that conducts lobbying activities are not deductible if:
- The lobbying activities relate to matters of direct financial interest to the donor's trade or business and
- The principal purpose of the contribution was to avoid Federal income tax by obtaining a deduction for activities that would have been
nondeductible under the lobbying expense rules if conducted directly by the donor.
Contributions of property other than cash.
If a corporation (other than a closely held or personal service corporation) contributes property other than cash and claims over a $500 deduction
for the property, it must attach a schedule to the return describing the kind of property contributed and the method used to determine its fair market
value (FMV). Closely held corporations and personal service corporations must complete Form 8283 and attach it to their returns. All other
corporations generally must complete and attach Form 8283 to their returns for contributions of property (other than money) if the total claimed
deduction for all property contributed was more than $5,000.
If the corporation made a qualified conservation contribution under section 170(h), also include the FMV of the underlying property before
and after the donation, as well as the type of legal interest contributed, and describe the conservation purpose benefited by the donation. If a
contribution carryover is included, show the amount and how it was determined.
Reduced deduction for contributions of certain property.
For a charitable contribution of property, the corporation must reduce the contribution by the sum of:
- The ordinary income and short-term capital gain that would have resulted if the property were sold at its FMV and
- For certain contributions, the long-term capital gain that would have resulted if the property were sold at its FMV.
The reduction for the long-term capital gain applies to:
- Contributions of tangible personal property for use by an exempt organization for a purpose or function unrelated to the basis for its
- Contributions of any property to or for the use of certain private foundations except for stock for which market quotations are readily
available (section 170(e)(5)).
A larger deduction is allowed for certain contributions of:
- Inventory and other property to certain organizations for use in the care of the ill, needy, or infants (see section 170(e)(3) and
Regulations section 1.170A-4A);
- Scientific equipment used for research to institutions of higher learning or to certain scientific research organizations (other than by
personal holding companies and service organizations) (see section 170(e)(4)); and
- Computer technology and equipment for educational purposes.
Contributions of computer technology and equipment for educational purposes.
A corporation may take an increased deduction under section 170(e)(6) for qualified contributions of computer technology or equipment for
educational purposes. Computer technology or equipment means computer software, computer or peripheral equipment, and fiber optic cable
related to computer use. A contribution is a qualified contribution if:
- It is made to an eligible donee (see below);
- Substantially all of the donee property's use is:
- Related to the purpose or function of the donee;
- For use within the United States; and
- For educational purposes.
- The contribution is made not later than 3 years after the date the taxpayer acquired or substantially completed the construction of the
- The original use of the property is by the donor or the donee;
- The property is not transferred by the donee for money, services, or other property, except for shipping, transfer, and installation
- The property fits productively into the donee's education plan; and
- The property meets standards, if any, that may be prescribed by future regulations, to assure it meets minimum functionality and suitability
for educational purposes.
The term eligible donee means:
- An educational organization that normally maintains a regular faculty and curriculum and has a regularly enrolled body of pupils in
attendance at the place where its educational activities are regularly conducted,
- A section 501(c)(3) entity organized primarily for purposes of supporting elementary and secondary education, or
- A public library (as described in section 170(e)(6)(B)(i)(III)).
The following exceptions apply to the above rules for computer technology and equipment:
- Contributions to private foundations may qualify if the foundation contributes the property to an eligible donee within 30 days after the
contribution and notifies the donor of the contribution. For more details, see section 170(e)(6)(C).
- For contributions of property reacquired by the manufacturer of the property, the 3 year period begins on the date that the original
construction of the property was substantially completed. Also, the original use of the property may be by someone other than the donor or the
Besides depreciation, include on line 20 the part of the cost that the corporation elected to expense under section 179 for certain tangible
property placed in service during tax year 2001 or carried over from 2000. See Form 4562 and its instructions.
Line 22 (Form 1120 Only)
See sections 613 and 613A for percentage depletion rates applicable to natural deposits. Also, see section 291 for the limitation on the depletion
deduction for iron ore and coal (including lignite).
Attach Form T (Timber), Forest Activities Schedules, if a deduction for depletion of timber is taken.
Foreign intangible drilling costs and foreign exploration and development costs must either be added to the corporation's basis for cost depletion
purposes or be deducted ratably over a 10-year period. See sections 263(i), 616, and 617 for details.
Line 24 (Form 1120 Only)
Pension, Profit-Sharing, etc., Plans
Enter the deduction for contributions to qualified pension, profit-sharing, or other funded deferred compensation plans. Employers who maintain
such a plan generally must file one of the forms listed below, even if the plan is not a qualified plan under the Internal Revenue Code. The filing
requirement applies even if the corporation does not claim a deduction for the current tax year. There are penalties for failure to file these forms
on time and for overstating the pension plan deduction. See sections 6652(e) and 6662(f).
Annual Return/Report of Employee Benefit Plan. File this form for a plan that is not a one-participant plan (see below).
Annual Return of One-Participant (Owners and Their Spouses) Retirement Plan. File this form for a plan that only covers the owner (or the owner and
his or her spouse) but only if the owner (or the owner and his or her spouse) owns the entire business.
Line 25 (Form 1120 Only)
Employee Benefit Programs
Enter contributions to employee benefit programs not claimed elsewhere on the return (e.g., insurance, health and welfare programs, etc.) that are
not an incidental part of a pension, profit-sharing, etc., plan included on line 24.
Line 26, Form 1120
(Line 22, Form 1120-A)
Attach a schedule, listing by type and amount, all allowable deductions that are not deductible elsewhere on Form 1120 or Form 1120-A. Form 1120-A
filers should include amounts described in the instructions above for lines 22, 24, and 25 of Form 1120. Enter the total of other deductions on line
26, Form 1120 (line 22, Form 1120-A).
Examples of other deductions include:
- Amortization of pollution control facilities, organization expenses, etc. (see Form 4562).
- Insurance premiums.
- Legal and professional fees.
- Supplies used and consumed in the business.
- Ordinary losses from trade or business activities of a partnership (from Schedule K-1 (Form 1065 or 1065-B)). Do not offset ordinary income
against ordinary losses. Instead, include the income on line 10. Show the partnership's name, address, and EIN on a separate statement attached to
this return. If the amount is from more than one partnership, identify the amount from each partnership.
- Dividends paid in cash on stock held by an employee stock ownership plan. However, a deduction may only be taken if, according to the plan,
the dividends are:
- Paid in cash directly to the plan participants or beneficiaries;
- Paid to the plan, which distributes them in cash to the plan participants or their beneficiaries no later than 90 days after the end of the
plan year in which the dividends are paid; or
- Used to make payments on a loan described in section 404(a)(9).
See section 404(k) for more details and the limitation on certain dividends.
Also see Special rules below for limits on certain other deductions.
Do not deduct:
- Fines or penalties paid to a government for violating any law.
- Any amount that is allocable to a class of exempt income. See section 265(b) for exceptions.
Special rules apply to the following expenses:
Travel, meals, and entertainment.
Subject to limitations and restrictions discussed below, a corporation can deduct ordinary and necessary travel, meals, and entertainment expenses
paid or incurred in its trade or business. Also, special rules apply to deductions for gifts, skybox rentals, luxury water travel, convention
expenses, and entertainment tickets. See section 274 and Pub. 463 for more details.
The corporation cannot deduct travel expenses of any individual accompanying a corporate officer or employee, including a spouse or dependent of
the officer or employee, unless:
- That individual is an employee of the corporation and
- His or her travel is for a bona fide business purpose and would otherwise be deductible by that individual.
Meals and entertainment.
Generally, the corporation can deduct only 50% of the amount otherwise allowable for meals and entertainment expenses paid or incurred in its trade
or business. In addition (subject to exceptions under section 274(k)(2)):
- Meals must not be lavish or extravagant;
- A bona fide business discussion must occur during, immediately before, or immediately after the meal; and
- An employee of the corporation must be present at the meal.
See section 274(n)(3) for a special rule that applies to expenses for meals consumed by individuals subject to the hours of service limits of the
Department of Transportation.
The corporation may deduct amounts paid or incurred for membership dues in civic or public service organizations, professional organizations (such
as bar and medical associations), business leagues, trade associations, chambers of commerce, boards of trade, and real estate boards. However, no
deduction is allowed if a principal purpose of the organization is to entertain, or provide entertainment facilities for, members or their guests. In
addition, corporations may not deduct membership dues in any club organized for business, pleasure, recreation, or other social purpose. This includes
country clubs, golf and athletic clubs, airline and hotel clubs, and clubs operated to provide meals under conditions favorable to business
The corporation cannot deduct an expense paid or incurred for a facility (such as a yacht or hunting lodge) used for an activity usually considered
entertainment, amusement, or recreation.
The corporation may be able to deduct otherwise nondeductible meals, travel, and entertainment expenses if the amounts are treated as compensation
and reported on Form W-2 for an employee or on Form 1099-MISC for an independent contractor.
Deduction for clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling property.
Section 179A allows a deduction for part of the cost of qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property
placed in service during the tax year. For more information, see Pub. 535.
Generally, lobbying expenses are not deductible. These expenses include:
- Amounts paid or incurred in connection with influencing Federal or state legislation (but not local legislation) or
- Amounts paid or incurred in connection with any communication with certain Federal executive branch officials in an attempt to influence the
official actions or positions of the officials. See Regulations section 1.162-29 for the definition of influencing legislation.
Dues and other similar amounts paid to certain tax-exempt organizations may not be deductible. See section 162(e)(3). If certain in-house lobbying
expenditures do not exceed $2,000, they are deductible. For information on contributions to charitable organizations that conduct lobbying activities,
see the instructions for line 19. For more information on lobbying expenses, see section 162(e).
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